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These are some papers that I wrote throughout my time in college. They are all some kind of term paper or paper that waas written for some kind of assignment. I'm putting them on here for people to see and to add things to my website.

Psychology Papers

Visual versus Auditory Processing Preference and Mode of Presentation:
Differences in Confidence, Attention, and Recall Performance in Online Learning

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This was the research project I did in the class 'Human Cognition' for my psychology capstone. It is a study that examines a person's preferred learning style (auditory or visual). It did this by having participants take a recall test on information given to them through text (visual), audiobook (auditory), and a TED Talk (control). Participants were also asked about their confidence in their scores after each of the three tasks. The TED Talk video was used as a control because it is both visual and auditory. After finishing all three tasks, participants were asked to take a post-test which asks them about their belief on the amount of attention they had throughout.


It was hypothesized that those who prefer visual learning would have a higher recall, attention, and self confidence than auditory learners for text-based material. It was also hypothesized that those who prefer auditory learning would have a higher recall, attention, and self confidence that visual learners with the audio lecture. Lastly, it was hypothesized that there would be no significant difference in recall, attention, and self confidence between visual and auditory learners in the video lecture, as it combines both visual and auditory components.


Findings suggest that there is no significant difference in recall performance, confidence in answers, or perceived attention to a video, audio, or a text lecture, whether one has a visual or auditory preference for the presentation of information. However, no significant results were observed, this is the first study conducted assessing three styles of presentation found in online lectures compared to a visual-auditory processing preference.

Philosophy Papers

Kripke's Argument is Ad Hominem
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This was my final term paper for a Philosophy of Mind class that I took. The paper is arguing that the main claim Saul Kripke presented in his ground breaking lectures is an ad hominem. His argument is against the claim that physicalists make, which is that the sensations that we feel are identical to our neurophysiological state at that time (identity theory).

A preview of one of his arguments goes like this:

Suppose the word 'heat' is identical to the motion of molecules and the subjective feeling of heat is a rigid designator of the phenomena of heat. In this case, the subjective experience of heat is not a necessary part of of what heat actually is. The way that we feel heat is how heat is fixed as reference, which is a priori contingent. A priori is something which is known independent of experience. It being contingent would mean that it was not necessarily true (it being both of these things--a priori and contingent--is part of his main argument. Now, the motion of the molecules (the meaning of heat) is an a posteriori necessary, meaning that it depends on scientific discovery or empirical evidence. This results in the meaning and the referent of heat being two different things. Before there was the scientific discovery of what heat actually was (the motion of molecules), when we we referred to heat, we were always referring to the motion of molecules. We could've discovered that heat was something else, and if it turns out that heat is the motion of molecules, then it is true in all possible worlds. >We can distinguish between the subjective feeling of heat and the thing that is causing it. So you can imagine that in another world that someone can have the subjective feeling of heat, but it is not actually heat that is causing the heat feeling.

What Constitutes Justice?
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Taken from the rough draft of the paper:

Plato wrote The Republic using a narration, expressing his thoughts by speaking through Socrates in an imitation of a dialogue between other characters in search of an absolute definition of justice. I will start this paper with the three definitions of justice that are given in Book I. I will then critique art, music, education, policy, and finally religion to show how manipulating these things through legislation will first help the state achieve justice and then how the individual can achieve justice.


To be continued...